By Johan Galtung
Our focus is on transactions: I give something to you, you give something to me. The double flow of which lo social is made.
We then limit the focus to economic transactions, of factors of production–resources, labor, capital, technology, administration–and products–goods, services. The public sector may control the factors; extraction-production-distribution-consumption is done by the public or private (or both) sectors, depending on the type of economy. In modern economies a money flow will be part of economic transactions.
And we generalize (Felipe Briones) to transactions of any kind:
• I pay you for losing the soccer match and I win my bet against odds;
• our state pays you for voting against your bill not to our liking;
• we pay your campaign for public office if you vote in our favor.
In all cases, the power moved from decision-makers to money-holders.
Limited or general, transactions tend to be complex: multiple double flows, triple, quadruple; more or less interconnected, etc.
The definition of corruption rests on a distinction between open and hidden transaction aspects, “above and under the table”, Read More »